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和刻版 之 三代歌川豊国的浮世绘


发表时间:+-

2024-1-3


在纽约布鲁克林博物馆里,有一块江户时代(Edo period,1615–1868)日本浮世绘画家歌川国貞(Utagawa Kunisada)也就是(a.k.a. Utagawa Toyokuni III)三代歌川豊国(Japanese, 1786–1865)的雕刻木版:


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Utagawa Kunisada (Toyokuni III) (side a) (Japanese, 1786-1865). Double-sided Key Block for Ukiyo-e Print, ca. 1830. Side a: Toyokuni III (Kunisada) Three Women Musicians On a Balcony. A woodblock for ukiyo-e print of an autumn scene of women playing shamisen and biwa (musical instruments) with an attendant who carries tray with tea cup. Condition: Very good. Wood is stained black from ink used in printing.Brooklyn Museum。


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Side b: Keisai 18 Tokyo cuisine style dishes. (Tokyo ryori jyuuhachi sakana) Name of place: Sumiyoshi cho… (incomplete) The other name of place: Honya bakuro (bakuro) four Carver's name: Cho-ei Keyblock for outline of ukiyo-e print showing two women in a restaurant, holding papers in their hands. Condition: Few tiny breaks in outline. Old break (stable) at upper left. Cherry wood, 15 1/2 x 10 1/8 x 3/8 in. (39.4 x 25.7 x 1 cm). 


  • This carving served as the key block, the first one made by the carver, based on Kunisada’s original drawing. It provides the basic outlines of the design. The key block was used to make a number of simple black impressions that served as guides for the carving of all subsequent blocks. The print made by this carving was the mirror image of what we see here, so all of the text on the block is in reverse. This block is actually signed by its carver, Asai Ginjirō (1844–1894). There was no general policy with regard to carvers signing their work, but such signatures are definitely in the minority.


想当年这样的雕刻木版也看到过一块,是另外一個浮世繪大師葛飾北齋最著名的神奈川衝浪裏,屬於經典當中的經典,被加工成了一个盒子,完整保存了下來,但被一个喜欢雕版印刷的朋友以五百块钱的价格给顺走了,不无遗憾。



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  • 歌川国贞(Utagawa Kunisada),又名三代歌川豊国(Utagawa Toyokuni III),1786年生于江户(现东京),是日本江户时期浮世绘画家、版画家。其最早的知名作品创作于1807年,大概1808年开始创作读本插画。他师承歌川丰国,以画色情画闻名,画中女人多颓废好色、忧郁疲惫。其画风自成一格,号称歌川派,是日本浮世绘派别影响力最大的一派。其生前名声远超同时代的葛饰北斋、歌川广重和歌川国芳。国贞最出名的画号为五渡亭、香蝶楼、一阳斋。1865年1月12日,他在江户去世,享年约80岁。


下面这一块,是日本版《红楼梦》插图中的单面雕,尤氏别馆花盛图,可遇而不可求,比较少见:


Rare Antique Ukiyo-e Cherrywood Carved Key Block by Kunisada/Toyokuni III - Picture 1 of 8

Rare Antique Ukiyo-e Cherrywood Carved Key Block by Kunisada/Toyokuni III - Picture 3 of 8

Rare Antique Ukiyo-e Cherrywood Carved Key Block by Kunisada/Toyokuni III - Picture 5 of 8Rare Antique Ukiyo-e Cherrywood Carved Key Block by Kunisada/Toyokuni III - Picture 2 of 8


粗略的估计,17世纪之后存世的日本雕版全世界约有二十万片,包括浮世绘版画和佛教经典,收全了既不可能,也没必要。


  • It is my estimate that currently there are some 200,000 surviving Japanese printing blocks, including color blocks,dating from the seventeenth to mid-twentieth centuries and housed in collections throughout the world. Yet, this represents only a fraction of the printing blocks that were produced during this period. Once printing blocks were produced, the final product—in this case the printed book—came into existence. And ultimately, it is much easier to examine extant books than search for printing blocks, many of which have not survived.


参考文献:


  1. The Printing Blocks of Woodblock-printed Books




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  • 席琳 回复 席琳

    紅樓夢日本傳播時間表:

    1735-1744:紅樓夢成書(80囘)

    1754:甲戍本石頭記16囘,胡適舊藏,現存上海博物館

    1791:程甲本(120囘)

    1792:成乙本(120囘)

    1793:船運至日本長崎

    1836:瀧澤馬琴書信記載紅樓夢在日本借閲

    1808-1865:歌川國貞浮世繪畫紅樓夢尤氏人物插圖(???)

    1892:森槐南日譯本紅樓夢第一回楔子

    1916:岸春風樓紅樓夢第39囘翻譯

    1920:幸田露伴/平田龍城翻譯80囘《囯譯紅樓夢》

    1940:松枝茂夫120囘全譯本面世


    屏蔽 举报回复
  • 席琳

    1876年,作为培养译官机构的官立东京外语学校甚至聘用了从北京来的旗人薛乃良担任“北京语”教师。东京外语学校曾严格要求学生会读会说会背从四书五经到《红楼梦》、《儿女英雄传》之类的中国古典小说。那时用的《红楼梦》是同治五年(1866)春“镌维经堂藏版”的 120 回本《绣像红楼梦》。明治十一年(1878年),幕末前上州高崎藩藩主大河内辉声(号桂阁,1848-1882年)与清廷驻日公使参赞黄遵宪谈到流传日本的中国白话小说时,仍然只能列举出《水浒传》、《三国演义》、《西游记》乃至少儿不宜的《金瓶梅》与《肉蒲团》。倒是黄遵宪大发感慨,极力推荐《红楼梦》乃开天辟地,从古到今第一部好小说,当与日月争光,万古不磨者,恨贵邦人不通中语,不能尽其妙也。黄遵宪的话,激起了大河内辉声对《红楼梦》的兴趣,他从清朝公使馆员手中借到此书,不仅通读完毕,还为其加训断句,请使馆人员为其加注准备出版日语评注本。

    屏蔽 举报回复
  • 席琳

    這塊雕版的面世,將是紅學研究上的一件大事。填補了自1793年到1892年的100年閒,至少自1836到1892年間,中國小説《紅樓夢》在日本傳播和研究的空白。

    屏蔽 举报回复