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  • 发表时间:

    政府的法律和自然的法律

    我们常说政府的法律,自然的法则,法律和法则在英语中都是law,也就是说法律和法则是同样的意思。

    当我们违背了政府的法律,我们会受到惩罚。比如说在中国,我们多生孩子,会被罚款,会失去工作。在西方的法律制度下,老人的权力很大,享受绝大部分的社会资源,那些养了很多孩子的人,由于劳累过度,早早过世,享受不到老人的福利,而不养孩子的人,保养得很好,活得很长,尽情享受别人所生孩子提供的服务。所以西方的法律制度也是惩罚多生孩子。而当我们违背了自然的法律,似乎不受任何惩罚。同样是生育问题,自然的法律告诉我们,每对夫妇至少生两个孩子,才能保持社会的可持续性,才能保持生物的正回报率,如果一对夫妇只生一个孩子,似乎自然,或者上天不会给我们任何惩罚,但独子的社会是一个高度紧张的社会,还有一些家庭失去了唯一的孩子,他们所感受到的痛苦,也许比政府的法律严酷的多。

    自然的法律,也许没有政府的法律这么快速,这么直接,但是从长远的角度,却更加严厉,更加沉重。一个社会,如果生育率长期低迷,其衰亡不可避免。古人说过,天网恢恢,疏而不漏。在历史的长河里,自然的法律,是永恒的,政府的法律,是暂时的。但对一个人的一生,政府的法律往往是永久的。西方的没落,在于政府的法律偏离自然的法律。伊斯兰的兴起,在于自然的法律高于政府的法律。如果我们忘记永恒的,却去屈从暂时的,只会重蹈历史上许多曾经强大社会的没落之路。


  • 发表时间:

    聪明的代价:亚当和夏娃的故事 


    很久以前,亚当和夏娃偷吃了智慧果,变得聪明了。上帝惩罚他们,迫使亚当终身在田间劳作,夏娃饱受生育之苦。当人变聪明了,豺狼虎豹不再是对手,人类的数目大量增加,光采采果子,打打猎,不够吃的。于是人们发明农业,高产出,但也高投入。男人被迫不断在田间劳作,为自己和家人提供食物。人变聪明,脑子变得很大,婴儿的大脑袋使得生孩子成为女人最痛苦的一件事。特别是东亚人,智商最高,脑袋最大,生孩子也最辛苦。

    从圣经的字面上看,似乎是亚当和夏娃偷吃禁果,其实智慧果是上帝给人类的礼物。试想一下,如果亚当和夏娃没有吃智慧果,人类可能还跟今天的黑猩猩一样,在地球上某个伊甸园里为生存而挣扎。人类正是因为吃了智慧之果,变聪明了,才得以统治世界。但聪明是有代价的。为了不让人类抱怨,上帝先种下智慧之树,然后告诉亚当夏娃别吃树上的果子。这样,人类就无法抱怨上帝了,因为这是人类自己的选择。



  • 发表时间:

    An Introduction to Quantum Mechanics of the Solar System 

    When we learned about the solar system, we might wonder, are there any patterns of the distances of the planets to the sun? When we learned about the Bohr theory of atoms, the same question might rekindle in our mind. This question must bug many people, such as myself, for many years. Now Yi Cao has discovered the patterns.

    Is there any pattern of the distances of the planets to the sun? Let us look at the distances of the four inner planets, Mercury, Venus, the earth, and Mars. Their distances are 0.4, 0.7, 1, and 1.5 respectively, where the distance of the earth to the sun is normalized to 1. There doesn’t seem to be any patterns. Now we take square roots of these numbers. We get 0.6, 0.8, 1, and 1.2, rounded to one decimal place. Here the pattern emerges as 3, 4, 5, 6. 

    Yi Cao discovered many other patterns and established quantum mechanics of the solar system.  He wrote a series of papers to present his ideas. The first paper can be found at

    http://vixra.org/pdf/1805.0102v2.pdf



  • 发表时间:

    吃盐和生育

    人体的肾脏每天过滤超过三磅的盐,几乎所有的盐都被肾脏重新吸收了,但这需要耗费大量的能量。

    当人体内部的盐含量较低,肾脏吸收盐的力度加大,耗能也随之加大。如果我们吃盐太少,肾脏一直需要高强度吸盐,身体会很累,没有多余的精力來生孩子。古希腊时代,亚理斯多德已经记载吃盐少的羊生育率低。中医也认为肾是先天之本,肾虚影响生育。

    大多数人应该吃盐足够多,但少数人,特别是那些跟随低盐食谱的人,可能吃盐太少。如果这些人很难怀孕,也许可以考虑根据自己的口味,而不是根据低盐食谱,来做饭。

    更具体的讨论,请参看下面这本书:

    The Salt Fix: Why the experts got it all wrong — and how eating more might save your life (Some quotes)

    The mechanism of kidney 

    On average, our kidneys may filter between 3.2 and 3.6 pounds of salt per day. This is about 150 times the amount of salt we ingest per day. To put this into perspective, most health agencies tell us that consuming just 6 grams of salt is too high, yet our kidneys filter this amount of salt every five minutes.

    The salt restriction recommendations hardly make sense from a physiological viewpoint, but seeing these numbers helps to put things further into perspective. The amount of salt we eat per day is truly a drop in the bucket compared to the amount the kidneys filter on a daily basis. In fact, the stress on our kidneys mainly comes from having to conserve salt and reabsorb all of the 3.2 to 3.6 pounds of salt that we filter every day. The reabsorption requires us to use up ATP ... Our sodium pump uses approximately 70 percent of the basal energy expended by the kidneys, making a low salt diet an energy hog and a tremendous stress to the kidneys. This is one way that low salt diets lead to weight gain, by slowly depleting our energy stores and leading us to become more sedentary. What organisms want to move (and sweat out precious sodium) when it has too little salt to begin with? (P 28)



    Salt and Sex

    One of the salt’s most intriguing properties is its importance for many facets of reproduction — from sexual desire and procreation to gestation and lactation — and this connection has been known at least since the time of ancient Greeks ... 

    A low salt diet seems to act like a natural contraceptive in both animals and humans, and in both males and females. A low salt diet causes a reduced sex drive, reduced likelihood of getting pregnant, ... and increased erectile dysfunction, fatigue, sleep problems. (P 30)




    General 


    The known consequences of salt restriction ... has long been independently known to increase the risk of death. (P 40)


    Compared to dramatic changes in the form, structure and function of the organs that occurred during vertebrate evolution, the fact that the electrolyte make up of the extracellular fluid has remained generally constant suggests that salt balance is an evolutionary adaptation. (P 17)

    Comment: In physiology classes, we should have learned electrolyte functions first. Instead, the content is put at the end of the textbook and was not taught.



    When one exercises, he will sweat and lose salt. If the amount of salt in the body is not enough, he will be reluctant to exercise. This is very much like a starved person is reluctant to exercise. A salt starved person is very much like food starved person. They can’t grow very well and will have a lot of other health problems. 



  • 发表时间:

    Ginger and gingerly: Some reflection from a cook 



    If you often feel cold, you might want to add some ginger in your dishes.


    Ginger speeds up the burning rate of the food. You will feel warmer.


    But if you eat too much ginger, food will burn too fast. You will feel hot and dry.


    Please use ginger gingerly.




  • 发表时间:

    How to trim a tree or an economy properly?


    A tree is growing well. But we worry that the nutrients are unsustainable. We want to trim the tree to preadapt to the future scarcity. Where should we do the trimming? Shall we harm the root to damage the foundation of the tree? Or shall we cut the overgrown branches to trim the frills? Gardeners will trim the frills .


    An economy is growing well. But we worry that the fossil fuels are unsustainable. We want to trim the economy to preadapt to the future scarcity. Where should we do the trimming? Shall we heavily tax resource industry to damage the foundation of the economy? Or shall we heavily tax the luxury industry to trim the frills? 



  • 发表时间:

    标致和婊子


    标致和婊子的读音相像

    一个部落强盛,漂亮的女人就是标致

    一个部落衰亡,漂亮的女人就成了婊子


    标致和 beauty 的读音也相像

    标,广东话读作 beau

    t 和 z 经常转换

    英语的 ten, 德语的 zehn

    致,zi, 转换成 ty

    标致就是 beauty 



  • 发表时间:

    Capitalism, socialism and democracy: A summary and some quotes 

    The book was written almost eighty years ago by Schumpeter. His ideas are much easier to understand today as the reality evolves closer toward his prophecies. Here is a summary.

    With the breakdown of family value, parenthood becomes increasingly a burden and sacrifice. More and more couples have no children or only one child. With fewer offspring, a person’s time horizon shortens to roughly one’s own life expectation. People are unwilling to work and save for the future. When under direct attack, they snatch at every chance of compromise; they are ever ready to give in; they never put up a fight under the flag of their own ideas and interests. Hence capitalism can not survive.






    Geniuses and the prophets do not usually excel in professional learning, and their originality, if any, is often due to precisely to the fact that they do not. (P. 21)


    On Creative Destruction

    The opening up of the new markets ... illustrate the same process of industrial mutation— if I may use that biological term— that incessantly revolutionizes the economic structure from within, incessantly destroying the old one, incessantly creating a new one. This process of Creative Destruction is the essential fact about capitalism.  ... This fact bears upon our problem in two ways. 

    First, since we are dealing with a process whose every element takes considerable time in revealing its true features and ultimate effects, there is no point in appraising the performance of that process ex visu of a given point of time, as it unfolds through decades or centuries.  A system — any system, economic or other— that at every given point of time fully utilizes its possibilities to the best advantage may yet in the long run be inferior to system that does no at no given point of time, because the latter’s failure to do so may be a condition for the level or speed of long run performance. 

    Second, since we are dealing with an organic process, analysis of what happens in any particular part of it — say, in an individual concern or industry — may indeed clarify details of mechanism but is inconclusive beyond that. Evert piece of business strategy acquires its true significance only against the background of that process and within the situation created by it. It must be seen in its role in the perennial gale of creative destruction; it cannot be understood irrespective of it or, in fact, on the hypothesis that there is a perennial lull. (P 84)

    On amateur and academic researchers

    It is highly significant that modern mathematico-experimental science developed, in the fifteenth, sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, not only along with the social process referred to as the Rise of Capitalism, but also outside of the fortress of scholastic thought and in the face of its contemptuous hostility. In the fifteenth century mathematics was mainly concerned with questions of commercial arithmetics and the problems of the architect. The utilitarian mechanical device, invented by men of the craftsman type, stood at the source of modern physics. The rugged individualism of Galileo was the individualism of the rising capitalist class. The surgeon began to rise above the midwife and the barber. The artist who at the same time was an engineer and an entrepreneur— the type immortalized by such men as Vinci ... By cursing it all, scholastic professors in the Italian universities showed more sense than we give them credit for. The trouble was not with individual unorthodox propositions. Any decent schoolman could be trusted to twist his texts so as to fit the Copernican system.  But those professors quite rightly sensed the spirit behind such exploits — the spirit of rational individualism, the spirit generated by rising capitalism. (P 124)

    Comments: Ideas from the outsiders are suppressed not because they are hard to understand. Rather they are viewed as challenges to the dominant institutions by individuals from periphery or outside. 

    For more, check out a short video by James Galbraith.

    https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=1yOdicriZ4k

    Chap 14.  Decomposition 

    To men and women in modern capitalist societies, family life and parenthood mean less than they meant before and hence are less powerful moulders of their behaviors ... The   proportion of marriages that produce no children or only one child ... might come as nearly as we can hope to come to indicating its numerical importance. 

    As soon as they introduce into their private life a sort of inarticulate system of cost accounting — they cannot fail to become aware of the heavy personal sacrifices that family ties and especially parenthood entails under modern conditions and of the fact that at the same time ... children cease to be economic assets. (P 157)

    Family and family home used to be the mainspring of the typical bourgeois kind of profit motive. Economists have not always given due weight to this fact. When we look more closely at their idea of the self interest of entrepreneurs and capitalists we cannot fail to discover that the results it was supposed to produce are really not at all what one would expect from the rational self interest of the detached individual or childless couple who no longer look at the world through the windows of a family home. Consciously or unconsciously they analyzed the behavior of the man whose views and motives are shaped by such a home and who means to work and to save primarily for wife and children. As soon as these fade out from the moral vision of the businessman, we have a different kind of homo oeconomicus before us who care for different things and act in different ways. For him and from the standpoint of his individualistic utilitarianism, the behavior of that old type would in fact be completely irrational. He loses the only type of romance and heroism that is left in the unromantic and unheroic civilization of capitalism — “Seafaring is necessary, living is not necessary”. And he loses the capitalist ethics that enjoins working for the future irrespective of whether or not one is going to harvest the crop oneself. (P 160)

    With the decline of the driving power suppled by the family motive, the businessman’s time horizon shrinks, roughly, to his life expectation. ... He drifts into an anti saving frame of mind and accepts with an increasing readiness anti saving theories that are indicative of a short run philosophy.

    ... Perhaps the most striking feature of the picture is the extent to which the bourgeoisie, besides educating its own enemies, allows itself in turn to be educated by them. It absorbs the slogans of current radicalism and seems willing to undergo a proces of conversion to a creed hostile to its own very existence. ...

    This is verified by the very characteristic manner in which particularly capitalist interests and the bourgeoisie as a whole behave when facing direct attack. They talk and plead ... they snatch at every chance of compromise; they are ever ready to give in; they never put up a fight under the flag of their own ideas and interests. (P. 161)



  • 发表时间:

    On amateur and academic researchers

    Schumpeter wrote, “modern mathematico-experimental science developed, in the fifteenth, sixteenth and seventeenth centuries ... outside of the fortress of scholastic thought and in the face of its contemptuous hostility.”

    The whole passage, from Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy 

    It is highly significant that modern mathematico-experimental science developed, in the fifteenth, sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, not only along with the social process referred to as the Rise of Capitalism, but also outside of the fortress of scholastic thought and in the face of its contemptuous hostility. In the fifteenth century mathematics was mainly concerned with questions of commercial arithmetics and the problems of the architect. The utilitarian mechanical device, invented by men of the craftsman type, stood at the source of modern physics. The rugged individualism of Galileo was the individualism of the rising capitalist class. The surgeon began to rise above the midwife and the barber. The artist who at the same time was an engineer and an entrepreneur— the type immortalized by such men as Vinci ... By cursing it all, scholastic professors in the Italian universities showed more sense than we give them credit for. The trouble was not with individual unorthodox propositions. Any decent schoolman could be trusted to twist his texts so as to fit the Copernican system.  But those professors quite rightly sensed the spirit behind such exploits — the spirit of rational individualism, the spirit generated by rising capitalism. (P 124)

    Comments: Ideas from the outsiders are suppressed not because they are hard to understand. Rather they are viewed as challenges to the dominant institutions by individuals from periphery or outside. 

    For more, check out a short video by James Galbraith.

    https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=1yOdicriZ4k



  • 发表时间:


    Music: a mathematical offering 


    I am reading Music: a mathematical offering. Humans can hear frequencies from 20 to 20000 HZ. The maximum frequency that can be represented by digital signal is half the sampling rate. Compact disc is based on the sample rate of 44100 HZ, slightly more than double 20000 HZ, the highest frequency humans can hear. This is an example that technology standard is set according to human physiology.